Transylvania the heart of Romania – History, architecture, inhabitants

The author likes you to know as much as possible about this Romanian province, because then, you will love it and search for it on your next trips. It was a pinpoint by all dates. The roman emperor Traian, wished its wealth, especially gold, and yet, today lies in Transylvania the biggest gold mine in Europe. Jules Verne, in order to take advantage of a mysterious cargo load, placed a Castel in Carpathians and a Count into Făgăraș area to quote two of his famous novels. It couldn’t turn otherwise: In Transylvania was given to grow Dracula vampire, in order to remind of the oldest myths that sounds in the ears of worldwide inhabitants. Transylvania is the heart, is the born of Romanian People. Carpathians surrounds it like fortress walls. From their heights, start exactly as wheel spikes, main rivers of romanian land – Olt and Mureș, Jiu and Someș, Bistrița and Târnavele. None of the less Carpathians weren’t an obstacle for communication between romanians of all three main historical areas. Although, administratively Transylvania linked temporary its existence by one ruler or another, romanian people evolved into an amazing unity: every corner of Romania: same spoken language, same customs, same religious predominant (orthodoxian). Wealth made that Transylvania to be assaulted from every direction by intruders. Among them, the Hungarians. Settled in Panonia fields, they were rejected to expand towards west. Though, they were entitled to grow their attacks from within the Carpathian semi-cercle. Years after years, romanians were more and more conquered and forced to serve into their own country, which was not recognizable as stand-alone nation living from centuries in this lands. The land’s history knew great shakeovers of the centuries. After Hungary fell under Turkish Empire in 1526, Transylvania receives a statut of „voievodat-ancient county” being governed some while by born-here leaders. In 1691, the Transylvania county receives austrian leadership, by Maria Tereza’s time. In 1765, receives the title of „Mare Principat – Great County”. Finally, in 1867, once the austro-hungarian empire settles, Hungary dominates the harshest whole Transylvanian area. As the First World War comes, „the land beyond the trees – țara de dincolo de păduri”, resets itself added by once and for good to mother-land Romania. There was in ancient times a stellar moment like this one, although for a brief period of time, in 1600, when Mihai Viteazu, Bucharest leader unites under his blade the three Romanian lands: Țara Românească, Transylvania and Moldova. 1st of December 1918, when Transylvania finally reunites with Romania, becomes after 1990 Național Celebration Day.

A traveller by bike, hike or by car arrived in Transylvania will be astonished by this amazing univers blended with beauty and complexity. Someone can find impresive ancient culture from daco-roman empire: Sarmizegetusa Regia and Apulum fortresses, Blidaru, Costești, Potaissa, Porolissum or Cibinum ruins. This are outstanding museums that tell their story beyond centuries. In Transylvania lies mysterious castles like Bran or Hunedoara. Among other ancient buildings, there lies the fortified german saxons churches, some of them included into UNESCO world heritage. Thus, the traveller is invited to dive deep into an aventure full of drama, completed by its picturesque, dramatique and learning purposes landscape. The villages univers – some of them lies on top of the mountains, the celebration’s charm puts you in an astonishing atmosphere that binds the archaic with candice and life joy. Transylvania has burgs (medium small German Saxon cities) – Sibiu is one of the European cultural capital of the year 2007 – and Transylvania has balneo resorts, rivers for nautical sports and for fishing, famous wine yards. In Transylvania, ethnics living along each other is an antic experience that relives every single day. Thus, it shows itself to tourists în many delightful ways: traditional costumes and shows, houses with a specific architectonic, gastronomie and music, weddings and baptems. A symbol of the Transylvanian land is the cross. Churches, no matter what they belong to, orthodoxian catholic or greco-catholic, evanghelist, unitarian or new age – are buildings that can’t be unnoticed by a traveller…

Unknown minority Secui

The relocation came unexpectedly. In 1920, when after the Treaty of Trianon, the Szeklers‘s Country was given by Hungary to Romania, all of the sudden a whole ethnic group began to live in another state. Suddenly the Szeklers had fellow citizens with whom they did not have much to share, besides the fact that the precise descendance of the two ethnic groups has not been fully clarified up to now. Thus, the Szeklers were considered successors of Avars, Huns, Gepids and even Romanians, but none of the variants have proved to be true. Some researchers considered the peoples of Turkish origins or even Bulgarians on The Volga River to be the predecessors of the Szeklers who would have been assimilated by the Hungarians linguistically, but there is not enough evidence for this theory either. The relationships with the Hungarian Kingdom were rather weak at the beginning. Although in the late Middle Ages the Szeklers military were part of the army of the Hungarian kings and the Transylvanian princes, there were often Szeklers in the armies of the princess of Wallachia and Moldavia, and even in Michael the Brave’s army there were often Szeklers who fought against the Hungarian nobleman Andreas Bathory. For five centuries the Szeklers were autonomous, as were the German Saxons in Transylvania, having their own legal system till the late 18th century. That is why they acted as “border guards” in the the territories they received from the Hungarian Kingdom. These privileges made the Szeklers hold their own identity in high esteem. Thus, besides the Hungarian noblemen and the German Saxons in Transylvania, the Szeklers were one of the three nations who in 1483 formed “Transylvania”. But nevertheless they got increasingly close to Hungary. While the language of the first Szeklers was partly of Turkish origin, the Hungarian language was becoming increasingly important. When, at the beginning of the 19th century the Hungarians had their “national resurrection” the Szeklers who were living in Romania perceived themselves as being part of the Hungarian nation. This is a point of view which, actually, has not changed until today.